March 2020 


March 2020 image.bmp
Example of a neutron microtomography using the PSI 'Neutron Microscope’ at the ILL-D50 beamline: A vertical slice from a neutron microtomography dataset showing dendritic
microstructures of lead, voids and gold in a sample of a gold-lead alloy.
Figure published in the WCNR-11 paper:
"PSI ‘Neutron Microscope’ at ILL-D50 Beamline - First Results"

Pavel Trtik, Michael Meyer, Timon Wehmann, Alessandro Tengattini, Duncan Atkins, Eberhard Lehmann, Markus Strobl
Materials Research Proceedings 15 (2020) 23-28
Reproduced by permission of the authors.
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April 2020 



Egyptian objects from the Kha and Merit grave goods.

Left: sealed ceramic vase investigated through neutron techniques, neutron radiography, and PGAA plot with the labels of the detected isotopes;

Right: Egyptian metallic vase (situla), neutron radiography and one of the acquired diffraction patterns

Figure published in the paper:

"Neutrons for Cultural Heritage—Techniques, Sensors, and Detection"

Giulia Festa , Giovanni Romanelli , Roberto Senesi, Laura Arcidiacono, Claudia Scatigno, Stewart F. Parker, M. P. M. MarquesCarla Andreani 

Sensors 2020, 20(2), 502;             


Reproduced with permission from G. Romanelli, Sensors; published by MDPI, 2020.

May 2020 


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Left: radiographic image of maltodextrin particles (x = 3.55 mm, c = 0.05 w/w) with the respective transmission scale;

Right: tomographic image of the maltodextrin particle (x = 3.55 mm, c = 0.05 w/w) at a height of 1.55 mm (red line in the left image) with the absorption scale (a.u.); the particle edge is represented by the red dotted line; the green line indicates the actual position of the drying front.


Figure published in the paper:-

"Development of an experimental setup for in situ visualization of lyophilization using neutron radiography and computed   tomography."

Hilmer MPeters JSchulz MGruber SVorhauer NTsotsas E, Foerst P

Reproduced from The Review of Scientific Instruments, 01 Jan 2020, 91(1):014102, with the permission of AIP Publishing.

DOI: 10.1063/1.5126927 PMID: 32012547 

June 2020 


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Photo (a) and a fast neutron image (b) of the Li-fueled reactor, post-operation. The flat and dark-field corrected radiographic image reveals a heat exchanger coil, the upper highly oxidized region (dark-gray), and the lower, primarily non-oxidized, elemental Li-rich portion (light gray). The image was taken over four minutes of exposure time. The red line represent roughly the beam size at the detector position.

Figure published in the WCNR-11 paper:

"Fast Neutron Imaging at a Reactor Beam Line"

R. Zboray, Ch. Greer, A. Rattner, R. Adams, Z. Kis

Materials Research Proceedings 15 (2020) 180-184

Reproduced by permission of the authors.

July 2020 


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Organisation of electrode unrolling (top, middle, bottom) and analysis of the lithium distribution in the LixMnO2 electrode during discharging using neutron tomography data

Figure published in the paper:-

"4D imaging of lithium-batteries using correlative neutron and X-ray tomography with a virtual unrolling technique"

Ralf F. ZiescheTobias ArltDonal P. FineganThomas M. M. Heenan

Alessandro TengattiniDaniel BaumNikolay KardjilovHenning Markötter

Ingo MankeWinfried KockelmannDan J. L. Brett & Paul R. Shearing

Nature Communications volume 11, Article number: 777 (2020)

Reproduced with permission from P.R. Shearing

August 2020 


marcos image.jpg

Figure published in the paper:-

"Neutron Dark-Field Imaging with Edge Illumination"

Marco Endrizzi, Gibril K. Kallon, Triestino Minniti, Rolf Brönnimann, Alessandro Olivo

arXiv:2006.12171v1 [physics.ins-det] 22 Jun 2020

Reproduced with permission from Marco Endrizzi

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September 2020 


Figure 5

a) Neutron CT slice shows layers of textile wrapping;

b) X-ray CT slice shows higher grayscale contrast;

c) Segmented and visualised calcaneus bone [green area in b)];

d) Close-up showing layered wrapping of varying tightness and coarseness [red box on a)]

Figure published in the WCNR-11 paper:-

"Digitally Excavating the Hidden Secrets of an Egyptian
Animal Mummy: a Comparative Neutron and X-ray CT Study"
Carla A Raymond and Joseph J Bevitt

Materials Research Proceedings 15 (2020) 250-255
Reproduced by permission of the authors.

October 2020 


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Figure published in:-

"Electric field imaging using polarized neutrons"

Yuan-Yu Jau, Daniel S. Hussey, Thomas R. Gentile, Wangchun Chen

arXiv:2006.03728 [physics.ins-det]

Reproduced by permission of the authors

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November 2020 


Figure 7. X-μCT- (A) and n-μCT-based (B) mesiodistal virtual sections through the buccal cusps of the lower molar SMF-8888. The white arrows indicate the positions of two pulp horns barely discernible on the X-ray image (A) but clearly rendered by the neutron-based record (B). The dotted line in (B) highlights the enamel-dentine boundary, not visible in (A).

Figure published in:-

"When X-Rays Do Not Work. Characterizing the Internal Structure of Fossil Hominid Dentognathic Remains Using High-Resolution Neutron Microtomographic Imaging"

Clément Zanolli, Burkhard Schillinger, Ottmar Kullmer, Friedemann Schrenk, Jay Kelley, Gertrud E. Rössner and Roberto Macchiarelli

Front. Ecol. Evol., 27 February 2020

Reproduced by permission of Clément Zanolli

December 2020 


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Figure 4.

(a) The horizontal cut through the tomography image of the partially dried sample (after 11.5 h of drying) reveals the dry zones. The light-gray regions contain water and maltodextrin (it is noted that maltodextrin and heavy water are not distinguished from this image).

(b) Schematic illustration of the different zones that are distinguished from the tomography image. The red arrows depict the expansion direction of the dry zones.

1: accumulation of maltodextrin inside the peripheral maltodextrin belt;

2: peripheral sublimation zone with fractal front;

3: ring of frozen water and maltodextrin;

4: sublimation fingering zone.

Figure published in:-

"Freeze-Drying with Structured Sublimation Fronts—Visualization with Neutron Imaging"

Nicole Vorhauer-Huget, David Mannes, Mathias Hilmer, Sebastian Gruber, Markus Strobl, Evangelos Tsotsas, Petra Foerst

Processes 2020, 8(9), 1091

Reproduced by permission of Nicole Vorhauer-Huget

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January 2021 


Fig. 8. NCT-rendered images of pristine (room temperature) and pyrolyzed (1000 °C) samples: (a) axial and (b) radial throughcuts of the samples defined in Table 2 and shown in Fig. 9.

Figure published in "Dynamics of hydrogen loss and structural changes in pyrolyzing biomass by neutron imaging"

Frederik Ossler, Charles E.A.Finney, Jeffrey M.Warren, Jean-Christophe Bilheux, Yuxuan Zhang, Rebecca A.Mills, Louis J.Santodonato, Hassina Z.Bilheux

Carbon, Available online 26 November 2020

Reproduced by permission of Frederik Ossler.

February 2021 


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Figure 5. Tomography test results on coin battery samples as an outer side

(a), longitude slice (b), cross-cut slices (c) and vertical arrangement image (d)

Figure published in:-

"Neutron tomography study of a lithium-ion coin battery" 

Yustinus Purwamargapratala, Sudaryanto, dan Fahrurrozi Akbar

IOP Conf. Series: Journal of Physics: Conf. Series 1436 (2020) 012029 IOP Publishing doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1436/1/012029

Published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence.

Reproduced by permission of Yustinus Purwamargapratala.

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March 2021 


Fig 2. Neutron image of the setup 64.2 minutes after being pressurized with CH4 from 1.0 to 81.4 bar, 7.0 °C.


Left cell: n-C10D22, right cell: C2D6O. Inner diameter of the measuring cell was 9.0±0.1 mm, outer 12 mm, grey intensity corresponds to transmittance. The regions used for the evaluation of the average intensity are depicted as yellow boxes; the methane phase and the length variable are indicated.

Figure published in:-

"One-pot neutron imaging of surface phenomena, swelling and diffusion during methane absorption in ethanol and n-decane under high pressure"

Vopička O, Číhal P, Klepić M, Crha J, Hynek V, Trtík K, Boillat P, Trtik P, Prescott S

PLoS One. 2020; 15(9): e0238470.Published online 2020 Sep 10.doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0238470, PMCID: PMC7482935

Reproduced by permission of Ondrej Vopicka and Pavel Trtik

April 2021 


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Fig. 3   Representative NR scans during the dry-down and recovery

Figure published in the paper "Differences in grapevine rootstock sensitivity and recovery from drought are linked to fine root cortical lacunae and root tip function"

Cuneo IF, Barrios-Masias F, Knipfer T, Uretsky J, Reyes C, Lenain P, Brodersen CR, Walker MA, McElrone AJ

The New Phytologist, 14 Mar 2020

doi: 10.1111/nph.16542 PMID: 32171020

Reproduced by permission of The New Phytologist and Italo Cuneo.

May 2021 


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Graphical abstract published with the paper

"Spectral neutron tomography"

K.V.Tran, R.Woracek, N.Kardjilov, H.Markötter, A.Hilger, W.Kockelmann, J.Kelleher, S.B.Puplampu, D.Penumadu, A.S.Tremsin, J.Banhart, I.Manke

MaterialsToday Advances, Volume 9, March 2021, 100132

Reproduced by permission of the authors, in particular, Robin Woracek

June 2021 

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Combining neutron and X-ray tomography. a 3D-rendered image of co-registered X-ray (rendered in grey) and neutron data (red). Virtual cuts reveal the interior structure of the sand column including the cardboard disc and some of the potential MP particles. The front cutting plane is also displayed in 2D as X-ray (b) and neutron image (c) to illustrate the complementary character of these imaging modalities. d The bivariate histogram of a sample sub-volume containing a plastic and a mineral particle labelled with “1” and “2”, respectively. The histogram illustrates that the different components can be better identified by dual-mode imaging. The red-marked area is the target range fulfilling both thresholds and thus the voxels assigned to belong to MPs

Figure 3 from the paper "Non-invasive detection and localization of microplastic particles in a sandy sediment by complementary neutron and X-ray tomography" by C. Tötzke, S.E. Oswald, A. Hilger and N. Kardjilov, published in the Journal of Soils and Sediments in Jan 2021.

This paper was published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License and permission for displaying this figure was given by S.E. Oswald.

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July 2021 

(a) Imaging of the interval between (110) Bragg-dip wavelength and (101) Bragg-dip wavelength of Grain 1

(b) Neutron transmission spectra of Regions (3) and (4) .

(c) Imaging of the interval between (110) Bragg-dip wavelength and (101) Bragg-dip wavelength of Grain 2.

(d) Neutron transmission spectra of Regions (5) and (6).

(e) Imaging of the interval between (110) Bragg-dip wavelength and (101) Bragg-dip wavelength of Grain 3.

(f) Neutron transmission spectra of Regions (1) and (2).

Figure 6 from the paper "Analysis and mapping of detailed inner information of crystalline grain by wavelength-resolved neutron transmission imaging with individual Bragg-dip profile-fitting analysis" by Yosuke Sakurai, Hirotaka Sato, Nozomu Adachi, Satoshi Morooka, Yoshikazu Todaka and Takashi Kamiyama, published in the journal Applied Sciences in June 2021.

This paper was published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License and permission for displaying this figure was given by Hirotaka Sato

August 2021 

Anton additive NR.jpg

Graphical abstract from the paper "Monitoring residual strain relaxation and preferred grain orientation of additively manufactured Inconel 625 by in-situ neutron imaging" by A.S.Tremsin, Y.Gao, A.Makinde, H.Z.Bilheux, J.C.Bilheux, K.An, T.Shinohara and K.Oikawa published in the journal Additive Manufacturing, Volume 46, October 2021, 102130

This paper was published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License and permission for displaying this figure was given by Anton Tremsin

September 2021 

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Fig. 5.On the left, a view of a cross section with a corrosion pit from the naturally corroded sample obtained with X-ray tomography. On the right, view of the corresponding cross section after alignment, as obtained with neutron imaging. The highest coefficients of attenuation are in white.    


Figure from the paper "A closer look at corrosion of steel reinforcement bars in concrete using 3D neutron and X-ray computed tomography" by Samanta Robuschia, Alessandro Tengattini, Jelke Dijkstra, Ignasi Fernandez, Karin Lundgren published by the journal Cement and Concrete Research 144 (2021) 106439


This paper was published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License and permission for displaying this figure was given by Samanta Robuschia.


October 2021 

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Fig. 15. High-quality normalized images using the modified NCT reconstruction method compared with the classical NCT reconstruction method.  


Figure from the paper "High quality reconstruction for neutron computerized tomography images" by Salwa R.Soliman, Hala H.Zayed, Mazen M.Selim, H.Kasban and T.Mongy published by the Alexandria Engineering Journal,  Volume 60, Issue 2, April 2021


This paper was published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License and permission for displaying this figure was given by Salwa Soliman.


November 2021 

Elin Fig 2.jpg

Figure 2. Image registration and phase segmentation.

(a) Sagittal slices of registered NT image, XRT image, and checkerboard comparison of both, for a representative specimen from the Treated group. The colour bar shows relative attenuation.

(b) Mean joint histogram, composed of all specimen-specific joint histograms, with six peaks (centres marked as black dots) corresponding to material phases found in all datasets. Specimen-specific joint histograms are available as supplementary material (figures 1 and 2 (available online at

(c) Histograms for NT (blue) and XRT (red), shown as the mean of each modality (bold line) with standard deviation (shaded area). Peaks or grey value regions corresponding to the investigated structures are indicated with arrows. Note that the dips in the shaded area for NT corresponds to where mean minus standard deviation reaches negative values in linear scale.

(d) Example of a phase diagram showing the distribution of grey values assigned to each phase based on fitted bivariate Gaussian functions. Grey value pairs not assigned to any phase are white.

(e) Phase segmentation of material phases based on the mapping of the phase diagram (d) to the image data (a).


Figure from the paper "Dual modality neutron and x-ray tomography for enhanced image analysis of the bone-metal interface" by Elin Törnquist, Sophie Le Cann, Erika Tudisco, Alessandro Tengattini, Edward Andò, Nicolas Lenoir, Johan Hektor, Deepak Bushan Raina, Magnus Tägil, Stephen A Hall, Hanna Isaksson  published by the journal Physics in Medicine & Biology,  Volume 66, Issue 13.

This paper was published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License and permission for displaying this figure was given by Elin Törnquist.



December 2021 

Graphical abstract from the paper "Sr(NH3)8Cl2-Expanded Natural Graphite composite for thermochemical heat storage applications studied by in-situ neutron imaging" by Perizat Berdiyeva, Anastasiia Karabanov, Didier Blanchard, Bjørn C.Hauback, Stefano Deledda published by the Journal of Energy Storage, Volume 34, February 2021.

This paper was published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License and permission for displaying this figure was given by Didier Blanchard.


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January 2022

Figure 8. Reconstructed tomography obtained for grapevine roots. The grapevine herbaceous cutting has been grown in a sample holder filled with sand. The dense 3D architecture of the roots is clearly observed in (A). A slide at the bottom of the sample holder is presented in (B). A threshold has been used to specifically contrast the roots from the sand and the sample holder (this 3D volume visualization is performed with the Avizo Fire 9.2 software).

From the paper "In situ Phenotyping of Grapevine Root System Architecture by 2D or 3D Imaging: Advantages and Limits of Three Cultivation Methods" by Yuko KrzyzaniakFrédéric CointaultCamille Loupiac, Eric Bernaud, Frédéric Ott, Christophe Salon, Anthony Laybros, Simeng Han, Marie-Claire Héloir, Marielle Adrian and Sophie Trouvelot, published in Front. Plant Sci., 29 June 2021,

The neutron experiments have been performed on the imaging station of the Léon Brillouin Laboratory, CEA Saclay, France.

This paper was published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License and permission for displaying this figure was given by Sophie Trouvelot.

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February 2022 

Fast neutron imaging with Mn2+:CsPbBrCl2. (a) Radiograph of Mn2+:CsPbBrCl2 NC scintillators under fast neutron irradiation (average of 20 147.2 s exposures) as compared with FAPbBr3 nanocrystals1 and a commercial ZnS:Cu(PP) screen, used here as a reference. (b) Light output of NC scintillators,1 given as a percentage of the light yield obtained for the reference ZnS:Cu(PP) scintillator under identical conditions. (c) Fast neutron radiograph of 66% Mn2+:CsPbBrCl2 thickness and concentration dependence (average of 10 147.2 s exposures). (d) Normalized light output vs sample thickness for 66% Mn2+:CsPbBrCl2 NCs (cross symbols representing the expected relative light yield due to the fast neutron scattering of toluene at the given thickness) showing a nearly linear response, in sharp contrast to the FAPbBr3 NCs (previously measured at the FRM-II reactor beamline NECTAR) which suffer a sharp dropoff due to self-absorption (green fit line).1 The dashed line is a guide to the eye.

Figure 3 from the paper "Highly Concentrated, Zwitterionic Ligand-Capped Mn2+:CsPb(BrxCl1–x)3 Nanocrystals as Bright Scintillators for Fast Neutron Imaging" by Federico MontanarellaKyle M. McCallKostiantyn Sakhatskyi, Sergii YakuninPavel TrtikCaterina BernasconiIhor CherniukhDavid MannesMaryna I. BodnarchukMarkus StroblBernhard Walfort, Maksym V. Kovalenko and published in ACS Energy Lett. 2021 Dec 10; 6(12): 4365–4373, doi: 10.1021/acsenergylett.1c01923. 

This paper was published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License and permission for displaying this figure was given by Maksym Kovalenko.

March 2022 

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Figure 3

Changing 3He concentration with temperature in the mixing chamber of the DR. Panels (a–c) show neutron images of the mixing chamber of the DR at the three temperatures indicated in (d), which is a plot of the quantity Σmtm against mixing chamber temperature. Note how Σmtm increases with temperature, indicating further attenuation of the neutron beam and hence greater 3He concentration in the dilute phase; and the phase boundary moves upwards, as expected because of the resulting redistribution of the mixture. The standard deviation of each data point in (d) is shown by the vertical error bars. Panel (e) shows the quantity Σmtm throughout the entire dilution refrigerator circuit for a mixing chamber temperature of 60 mK and indicates the measurement position for the graph in (d) with the black square at the lower-right of the mixing chamber.

Figure 3 from the paper "Neutron imaging of an operational dilution refrigerator" by Lawson CR, Jones AT, Kockelmann W, Horney SJ, Kirichek O published in Scientific Reports, 21 Jan 2022, 12(1):1130
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-022-05025-0 

This paper was published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License and permission for displaying this figure was given by Christopher Lawson.

April 2022